The overhead transparency masters that follow have been prepared from
figures in METEOROLOGY- The Atmosphere and the Science of Weather, Third
Edition, by Joseph M. Moran and Michael D. Morgan.
average variation of temperature with altitude within the atmosphere.
ionosphere, at altitudes above 80 km, regions of charged subatomic particles
reflect outgoing radio waves.
wavelength of an electromagnetic wave is the distance between successive
crests or successive troughs.
intensity of solar radiation as a function of wavelength.
intensity of radiation emitted by the Earth-atmosphere system as a function
intensity of solar radiation that strikes the Earth's surface varies with
changes in solar altitude.
Earth's orbit is an ellipse, with the sun located at one focus.
seasons change because the Earth's equatorial plane is inclined to its
the autumnal and vernal equinoxes, insolation is maximum at the equator,
and day and night are of equal length everywhere.
the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice, maximum insolation is at 23 degrees,
27 minutes N. and days are longer than nights everywhere north of the equator.
- At the Northern Hemisphere winter solstice, maximum
insolation is at 23 degrees, 27 minutes S, and days are shorter than nights
everywhere north of the equator.
- Absorption of radiation by selected components
of the atmosphere is shown as a function of wavelength.
- A comparison of the three temperature scales:
Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit.
- Variation of average monthly temperatures for
(A) maritime San Francisco and (B) continental St. Louis.
- An index of continentality gauges the influence
of oceans on air temperature over continents.
- Average annual heating degree-day totals over
lower 48 states.
- The distribution of 100 units of incoming solar
radiation and outgoing, infrared radiation on a global scale indicates
excess heating at the Earth's surface.
- Heat is added to raise the temperature of ice
and water and to change the phase of water.
- Variation by latitude of absorbed solar radiation
and outgoing infrared radiation.
- A series of energy transformations operate with
the Earth-atmosphere system.
- Cold air advention (A); warm air advection (B).
- Variation of air pressure with altitude.
- A trace from a barograph showing the variation
in air pressure reduced to sea level at Green Bay, Wisconsin.
- The hydrologic cycle is a continuous transfer
of water among terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric reservoirs.
- On a calm day relative humidity varies inversely
with air temperature.
- As an unsaturated parcel of air ascends in the
atmosphere, it expands and cools at the dry adiabatic lapse rate.
- Rising parcels of saturated (cloudy) air cool
at the moist adiabatic lapse rate.
- Upward and downward displacements of an unsaturated
air parcel within stable air.
- Upward and downward displacements of an unsaturated
air parcel within unstable air.
- Air stability is determined by comparing vertical
temperature profiles with the dry adiabatic lapse rate for unsaturated
air parcels and with the moist adiabatic lapse rate for saturated air parcels.
- Warm, light air displaces cooler, denser air
by overriding the cool air along a gently sloping frontal surface.
- Cool air displaces lighter warm air by sliding
under the warm air.
- Mountain-wave clouds form when a mountain range
deflects the horizontal wind into a wavelike pattern.
- A relatively large water droplet collides and
coalesces with much smaller droplets in its path.
- Ice crystals grow within a cloud, colliding with
super-cooled water droplets and other ice crystals as they fall, until
they are large enough to fall out of the cloud as snowflakes.
- A solar ray is retracted and internally reflected
by a raindrop.
- Refraction of sunlight by raindrops and double
reflection within raindrops produce a dimmer secondary rainbow just above
the primary rainbow.
- The horizontal air pressure gradient is relatively
steep where isobars are close together (A) and relatively weak where isobars
are farther apart (B).
- Sloshing water back and forth in a bathtub creates
a horizontal pressure gradient on the bottom of the tub.
- When viewed from space, our north-south, east-west
frame of reference changes as the Earth rotates on its axis.
- The Coriolis effect deflects large-scale air
- Turbulent eddies develop in the wind on the leeward
side of a house.
- With hydrostatic equilibrium, the upward-directed
vertical pressure gradient force ating on an air parcel is balanced by
the downward-directed force of gravity.
- The geostrophic wind is a consequence of a balance
between the horizontal pressure gradient force and the Coriolis effect.
- In a Northern Hemisphere anticyclone above the
friction layer, the gradient wind blows clockwise and parallel to isobars.
- In a Northern Hemisphere cyclone above the friction
layer, the gradient wind.
- Within the friction layer, the Coriolis effect
combines with friction to balance the horizontal pressure gradient force.
- Surface winds blow clockwise and outward in a
Northern Hemisphere anticyclone.
- Surface winds blow counterclockwise and inward
in a Northern Hemisphere cyclone.
- In this idealized vertical cross section of an anticyclone, air converges
aloft, sinks, and diverges at the Earth's surface.
- In this idealized vertical cross section of a cyclone, air converges
at the Earth's surface, rises, and diverges aloft.
- Surface winds undergo horizontal divergence when blowing from a rough
to a smooth surface, and horizontal convergence when blowing from a smooth
to a rough surface.
- Global-scale air circulation on an idealized model of the Earth.
- Man sea-level air pressure for January and July (in milibars).
- A schematic representation of the global-scale surface circulation
of the atmosphere.
- Vertical cross section showing the north-south winds in the Northern
- Midlatitude westerlies exhibit a zonal flow pattern aloft when winds
blow almost directly west to east.
- Midlatitude westerlies exhibit a meridional f low pattern aloft when
west-to-east winds have a strong meridional component.
- Aloft, the midiatitude westerlies sometimes exhibit an extreme meridional
f low pattern in which huge pools of rotating air are cut off from the
main west-to-east circulation.
- Average locations of the polar front jet stream in winter and summer.
- Westerly gradient winds speed up in ridges and slow down in troughs,
producing convergence and divergence.
- Air mass source regions for North America.
- A stationary front has surface winds parallel to the front, and overrunning
often produces a wide range of clouds and rain or snow on the cold side.
- Overrunning along a warm front also triggers cloud development, but
the front has a shallow slope at low levels and surface winds on the cold
side are retreating.
- Surface winds on the cold side of a cold front blow toward the front,
and clouds and precipitation occur only in a narrow band at and just ahead
- A midlatitude cyclone passes through its life cycle.
- A wave cyclone showing typical patterns of (A) surface winds, (B) surface
air temperatures, and (C) clouds and precipitation.
- Principal storm tracks across North America.
- Surface air streams during the monsoon circulations of January and
- Vertical cross sections of (A) a sea (or lake) breeze and (B) a land
- Because of frequent lake-effect snows, the average annual snowfall
in the Great Lakes region is greatest downwind of the lakes.
- When circulation about an anticyclone or cyclone far leeward of a mountain
range pulls air down the leeward slope, warm, dry chinook winds develop.
- A schematic representation of valley and mountain breeze circulation.
- A thunderstorm's life cycle consists of cumulus, mature, and dissipating
- Thunderstorm frequency across the United States.
- Synoptic situation most favorable for the development of severe thunderstorms.
- Vertical temperature profile most f avorable for the sudden eruption
of severe thunderstorms.
- Hail frequency across the United States.
- Tornado frequency in number per year within areas defined by 91 km
- Hurricane breeding grounds are located only over certain portions
of the world's oceans.
- Hurrricane trajectories are often erratic.
- The Doppler effect is the shift in frequency of sound or electromagnetic
waves that accompanies the relative motion of the wave source or wave receiver.
- Weather station model showing symbols used on surface weather maps.
- Percentage of Christmas mornings with snow on the ground.
- Doubling the wind speed from 1 to 2 m per second increases the spacing
between puffs of smoke by a factor of two, reducing pollution concentrations
by one half.
- Prevailing atmospheric circulation patterns and typographic features
combine to give Los Angeles an unusually high air pollution potential.
- The average annual pH values of rain and snow in 1982 show the acidity
of precipitation over North America.
- Surface waters in many areas of North America are sensitive to acidification.
- Mean annual global sea-level temperatures in F.
- Mean global sea-level temperatures for January in F.
- Mean global sea-level temperatures for July in F.
- Mean annual global precipitation in centimeters.
- Reconstruced curve of air temperatures in eastern Europe over the past
- Variation in mean annual temperature of the Northern Hemisphere, 1881-1983,
is expressed as departures from a 100-year mean temperature (in 'C).
- Climatic variability is influenced by many processes.
- The Milankovitch cycles in Earth-sun geometry may determine the timing
of major glacial-interglacial climatic shifts.
- Upward trend in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as measured at Mauna
Loa Observatory, Hawaii.
- Climatic variability is influenced by the complex interaction of many
processes operating within the Earth-atmosphere system.
- A model of the atmosphere was used to predict the effect of increasing
levels of carbon dioxide and other factors on global temperature.